Sixth Seminar by Young Researchers II
Endoscopic Surgical Education by Utilizing Simulations
Ryota Tanaka spoke about “Endoscopic Surgical Education by Utilizing Simulations”
at young Japanese researchers’ seminar, which was held on January 25 at
the Japan Information Center of the Consulate General of Japan at Chicago.
• In recent years, endoscopic surgery
has become common. How is it different from open chest surgery or open
abdominal surgery? How are surgeons trained for manipulating endoscopic
• In recent years, robotic surgery has
also been available. It provides surgeons with the three dimensional images,
and they operate on a patient by using robotic arms, hand controllers
and other instruments. Although the symptom example numbers have increased
in the U.S., a 2014 FDA report said that 71 patients died in 2012 by robotic-surgery-related
causes. Tanaka said that the main cause of the deaths was massive bleeding.
• The biggest merit of endoscopic and robotic surgery is minimally invasive surgery. When surgeons perform open chest surgery, they cut about a foot of the patient’s chest and make enough room to insert a hand by pushing rib bones to both sides. In the endoscopic and robotic surgery, making some holes in a patient’s chest is good enough to insert tools. Thus, the patient’s recovery is faster. Tanaka said, “I think that we have to make our efforts to move toward less invasive surgery; thus, I have devoted myself to establish a training system for endoscopic surgery.”
• The endoscopic surgery requires new skills. When a surgeon moves a tool to left, the tip of the tool moves to right because it has a fulcrum point at the edge of the hole in a patient’s chest. Besides, a surgeon has to control the tool by watching a monitor. Moreover, a surgeon has to manipulate an endoscopic camera in order to focus on a critical point in a timely manner. Tanaka said that an efficient training system hasn’t been established yet, so he has been studying it.
• Similar to the flight simulator, the
FLS simulator was developed for endoscopic surgeons. It presents unexpected
situations such as massive bleeding. In the U.S., a candidate must pass
the simulation test to become a surgeon. This requirement was set in 2010.
Tanaka said that Japanese surgeons would
• Tanaka has developed a simulation model by using a pig’s lung, which is similar to a human’s. His model not only improves personal skills, but also raises surgeons’ skills as a team. He emphasized the importance of keeping motivation for skill up and giving feedbacks.
• By the way, what is an appropriate
training period for endoscopic surgeons? A psychologist said that if you
want to become a world-class chess player, you have to be trained in your